Each province and territory decides the age when a person becomes an adult. This is known as the age of majority. A person under the age of majority is a “minor child”.
|Province or territory
||Age of majority
|Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan
|British Columbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Yukon
Caring for a minor child in Canada
The parents or legal guardians must prove the minor child will have the care and support they need during their stay in Canada. Minor children under the age of 17 must either:
- come with their parent or legal guardian or
- have a custodian in Canada
A custodian is a responsible adult, who is a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident, who will take care of and support the minor child. A custodian is optional for minors 17 years of age and older, but an officer can request one on a case-by-case basis.
How to appoint a custodian
To appoint a custodian, send us the Custodianship Declaration form (PDF, 1.02 MB) along with the minor child’s study permit application.
The two pages of the form look similar, but:
- the first page needs to be signed by the custodian and notarized (certified by a lawyer or notary) in Canada
- the second page needs to be signed by the parents or legal guardians of the minor child and notarized in their home country
Minor children before entering Canada
Minor children who want to study in Canada must apply for a study permit before they enter Canada. This includes minor children who come with parents who already have a valid study or work permit.
If they’re coming to Canada with parents who have a valid study or work permit, they don’t need to provide a letter of acceptance from a school when they apply for a study permit.
Before your minor child travels to Canada, make sure their DLI is on the list of those with approved COVID-19 readiness plans. They won’t be able to enter Canada if their DLI isn’t on this list.
Minor children already in Canada
Minors already in Canada should apply for a study permit. In some provinces or territories, they may need one to receive social services.
Minor children who are already in Canada may study without a study permit if they:
- are in kindergarten, no matter what their parents’ status is in Canada
- want to go to pre-school, primary or secondary school and have a parent who is allowed to work or study in Canada
- are refugees or refugee claimants
- have parents who are refugees or refugee claimants
- came to Canada as a visitor for a course or program of studies of six months or less
- will study in a course or program of six months or less
- are in Canada by themselves
Minors who don’t have a study permit need a valid visitor status during their stay in Canada.
Applying for a study permit inside Canada
You’ll need a letter of acceptance if you’re a minor child in Canada with a family member who had a work or study permit approved before entering Canada.
Extending a study permit inside Canada
You need a letter of acceptance to extend your study permit inside Canada. The length of a minor’s study permit is based on the letter of acceptance. Make sure to apply for the new permit at least three months before the current permit expires.
You can find an expiry date on the study permit.
If your study permit expires
You must keep a valid status during your stay in Canada. Usually, this means a valid study permit. If you’re allowed to study in Canada without a study permit, then you must have a valid visitor visa or Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA).
If you haven’t applied to renew your study permit before it expires, you’ll lose your student status and have 90 days to apply to restore it. You’re allowed to continue studying until a decision is made.